Beijing Climate & Terrain

Beijing has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dwa), characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone.[41] Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn, like spring, sees little rain, but is crisp and short. The monthly daily average temperature in January is -3.7 °C (25.3 °F), while in July it is 26.2 °C (79.2 °F). Precipitation averages around 570 mm (22.4 in) annually, with the great majority of it falling in the summer months. Extremes have ranged from -27.4 to 42.6 °C (-17 to 109 °F).

Climate data for Beijing (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
5.0
(41.0)
11.6
(52.9)
20.3
(68.5)
26.0
(78.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.9
(87.6)
29.7
(85.5)
25.8
(78.4)
19.1
(66.4)
10.1
(50.2)
3.7
(38.7)
17.9
(64.2)
Average low °C (°F) -8.4
(16.9)
-5.6
(21.9)
0.4
(32.7)
7.9
(46.2)
13.6
(56.5)
18.8
(65.8)
22.0
(71.6)
20.8
(69.4)
14.8
(58.6)
7.9
(46.2)
0.0
(32.0)
-5.8
(21.6)
7.2
(45.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.7
(0.106)
4.9
(0.193)
8.3
(0.327)
21.2
(0.835)
34.2
(1.346)
78.1
(3.075)
185.2
(7.291)
159.7
(6.287)
45.5
(1.791)
21.8
(0.858)
7.4
(0.291)
2.8
(0.11)
571.8
(22.512)
%humidity 44 44 46 46 53 61 75 77 68 61 57 49 56.8
Avg. precipitation days (>= 0.1 mm) 1.8 2.3 3.3 4.3 5.8 9.7 13.6 12.0 7.6 5.0 3.5 1.7 70.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 194.1 194.7 231.8 251.9 283.4 261.4 212.4 220.9 232.1 222.1 185.3 180.7 2,670.8
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Xian Climate & Terrain

Xi'an has a temperate, semi-arid climate (Koppen BSk) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. Spring and autumn are somewhat brief and dry. Xi'an receives most of its annual precipitation from August to late October in the form of rain. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. Monthly mean temperatures range from around the freezing mark in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual average of 13.7 °C (56.7 °F). Extreme temperatures have ranged from -20.6 °C (-5 °F) to 42.9 °C (109 °F).

Climate data for Xi'an (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
8.3
(46.9)
13.9
(57.0)
21.0
(69.8)
26.1
(79.0)
31.2
(88.2)
32.1
(89.8)
30.8
(87.4)
25.3
(77.5)
19.5
(67.1)
12.2
(54.0)
6.4
(43.5)
19.3
(66.7)
Average low °C (°F) -3.8
(25.2)
-1.1
(30.0)
3.6
(38.5)
9.5
(49.1)
14.2
(57.6)
19.2
(66.6)
21.9
(71.4)
20.9
(69.6)
15.9
(60.6)
9.9
(49.8)
2.9
(37.2)
-2.5
(27.5)
9.2
(48.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 6.9
(0.272)
9.6
(0.378)
28.6
(1.126)
43.0
(1.693)
60.2
(2.37)
54.4
(2.142)
98.6
(3.882)
70.8
(2.787)
91.6
(3.606)
59.9
(2.358)
23.9
(0.941)
5.8
(0.228)
553.3
(21.783)
humidity 66 63 66 67 68 62 71 75 79 77 74 69 69.8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.6 4.4 6.9 8.4 8.9 9.0 10.0 9.1 10.9 9.7 6.0 3.4 90.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 100.8 103.2 120.8 147.9 171.4 185.3 191.9 195.4 127.0 111.1 98.4 92.8 1,646.0
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Chengdu Climate & Terrain

Chengdu has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, and is largely mild and humid. It has four distinct seasons, blessed with abundant rainfall, and relieved from both sweltering summers and freezing winters. Its favorable climate contributes to the development of agriculture and animal husbandry, making Chengdu a comfortable place for sustained human habitat.

The Qin Mountains to the far north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter; because of this, the short winter is milder than in the Lower Yangtze. January averages 5.6 °C (42.1 °F) Snow is rare but there are a few periods of frost each winter. The summer is hot and humid, but not to the extent of the "Three Furnaces" cities of Wuhan, Nanjing, and Chongqing, all which lie in the Yangtze basin. July and August average around 25 °C (77 °F), with afternoon highs sometimes reaching 33 °C (91 °F); sustained heat in the likes of some cities in Southeastern China is rare. Rainfall is common year-round but is the greatest in July and August, with very little of it in the cooler months. Chengdu also has one of the lowest sunshine totals in China (less sunshine annually than London), and most days are cloudy and overcast even if without rain. This is especially so in the winter months, when it is typically interminably grey and dreary, compounding the poor air quality. Spring (March-April) tends to be sunnier and warmer than autumn (October–November). Extremes have ranged from −5.9 °C (21 °F) to 40.0 °C (104.0 °F).

Climate data for Chengdu (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
11.2
(52.2)
15.9
(60.6)
21.7
(71.1)
26.0
(78.8)
28.0
(82.4)
29.5
(85.1)
29.7
(85.5)
25.2
(77.4)
20.6
(69.1)
15.8
(60.4)
10.7
(51.3)
20.3
(68.5)
Average low °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
4.7
(40.5)
8.2
(46.8)
12.9
(55.2)
17.2
(63.0)
20.5
(68.9)
22.0
(71.6)
21.7
(71.1)
18.6
(65.5)
14.6
(58.3)
9.5
(49.1)
4.5
(40.1)
13.1
(55.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 7.9
(0.311)
12.1
(0.476)
20.0
(0.787)
44.2
(1.74)
78.5
(3.091)
106.8
(4.205)
224.5
(8.839)
201.1
(7.917)
118.8
(4.677)
35.2
(1.386)
15.9
(0.626)
5.2
(0.205)
870.2
(34.26)
% humidity 83 81 79 78 76 81 86 85 85 85 83 84 82.2
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.0 8.5 10.9 13.0 14.7 15.2 17.6 15.8 15.6 13.1 7.7 5.2 144.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 53.3 51.4 83.1 113.9 121.7 117.2 131.9 155.0 77.6 59.4 57.2 51.6 1,073.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Guilin Climate & Terrain

Guilin has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, with mild winters and long, hot, and humid summers. The monsoon is long, lasting from March to August, and a pronounced dry season occurs in fall and winter; the total annual rainfall is 1,920 millimetres (76 in). Mean temperatures range from 8.5 °C (47.3 °F) in January to 28.7 °C (83.7 °F) in July. Snowfall is rare but possible in winter.

Climate data for Guilin (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
12.7
(54.9)
16.5
(61.7)
22.7
(72.9)
27.1
(80.8)
30.4
(86.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.8
(91.0)
30.3
(86.5)
25.6
(78.1)
20.2
(68.4)
15.2
(59.4)
23.1
(73.6)
Average low °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
7.0
(44.6)
10.4
(50.7)
15.9
(60.6)
20.1
(68.2)
23.4
(74.1)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
21.9
(71.4)
17.3
(63.1)
12.1
(53.8)
7.3
(45.1)
15.8
(60.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 63.4
(2.496)
96.7
(3.807)
136.7
(5.382)
247.4
(9.74)
351.7
(13.846)
346.9
(13.657)
231.3
(9.106)
173.3
(6.823)
81.8
(3.22)
65.7
(2.587)
63.6
(2.504)
42.8
(1.685)
1,901.3
(74.854)
% humidity 74 76 80 81 81 82 79 78 73 71 67 67 75.8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15.1 15.5 18.6 20.2 19.0 17.5 16.1 14.8 8.2 9.7 8.7 9.1 172.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.9 50.0 51.6 72.6 109.5 131.1 199.4 204.1 193.4 157.1 134.4 117.2 1,487.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Kunming Climate & Terrain

Located at an elevation of 1,890 m on the Yungui Plateau with low latitude and high elevation, Kunming has one of the mildest climates in China, characterised by short, cool dry winters with mild days and crisp nights, and long, warm and humid summers, but much cooler than the lowlands. The weather never gets very hot in summer; the temperature has exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) only on a handful of occasions. However, freak snowfalls occur in occasional winters. Controlled by a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb), average highs are around 15 °C (59 °F) in winter and 24 °C (75 °F) in summer. With its perpetual spring-like weather which provides the ideal climate for plants and flowers, Kunming is known as the "City of Eternal Spring". The city is covered with blossoms and lush vegetation all-year round.[10] The period from May to October is the rainy season and the rest of the year is dry. The city has a mean annual rainfall of 1,010 millimetres (40 in), with an annual sunshine period of 2,250 hours and an annual frost-free period of 230 days. Extreme temperatures in the city have ranged from −7.8 °C (18 °F) to 32.2 °C (90 °F).

Climate data for Kunming (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
17.2
(63.0)
20.7
(69.3)
23.8
(74.8)
24.4
(75.9)
24.1
(75.4)
24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
22.7
(72.9)
20.5
(68.9)
17.5
(63.5)
15.1
(59.2)
20.8
(69.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
3.6
(38.5)
6.4
(43.5)
10.1
(50.2)
14.3
(57.7)
16.7
(62.1)
16.9
(62.4)
16.2
(61.2)
14.6
(58.3)
11.9
(53.4)
7.3
(45.1)
3.1
(37.6)
10.3
(50.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 15.8
(0.622)
15.8
(0.622)
19.6
(0.772)
23.5
(0.925)
97.4
(3.835)
180.9
(7.122)
202.2
(7.961)
204.0
(8.031)
119.2
(4.693)
79.1
(3.114)
42.4
(1.669)
11.3
(0.445)
1,011.3
(39.815)
% humidity 68 63 58 59 68 78 83 82 81 79 77 73 72.4
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4.4 4.6 5.5 6.8 12.2 17.4 20.3 19.3 15.8 13.0 7.3 3.8 130.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 224.5 219.6 255.4 244.8 212.2 135.0 124.3 144.9 123.5 143.7 169.8 200.0 2,197.6
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Shanghai Climate & Terrain

Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) and experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, and cold northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing, although most years there are only one or two days of snowfall. Summers are hot and humid, with an average of 8.7 days exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) annually; occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. The city is also susceptible to typhoons in summer and the beginning of autumn, none of which in recent years has caused considerable damage. The most pleasant seasons are Spring, although changeable and often rainy, and Autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. The city averages 4.2 °C (39.6 °F) in January and 27.9 °C (82.2 °F) in July, for an annual mean of 16.1 °C (61.0 °F). Shanghai experiences on average 1,878 hours of sunshine per year, with the hottest temperature ever recorded at 40.2 °C (104 °F), and the lowest at -12.1 °C (10 °F).

Climate data for Shanghai (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
9.2
(48.6)
12.8
(55.0)
19.1
(66.4)
24.1
(75.4)
27.6
(81.7)
31.8
(89.2)
31.3
(88.3)
27.2
(81.0)
22.6
(72.7)
17.0
(62.6)
11.1
(52.0)
20.2
(68.4)
Average low °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
2.2
(36.0)
5.6
(42.1)
10.9
(51.6)
16.1
(61.0)
20.8
(69.4)
25.0
(77.0)
24.9
(76.8)
20.6
(69.1)
15.1
(59.2)
9.0
(48.2)
3.0
(37.4)
12.9
(55.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 50.6
(1.992)
56.8
(2.236)
98.8
(3.89)
89.3
(3.516)
102.3
(4.028)
169.6
(6.677)
156.3
(6.154)
157.9
(6.217)
137.3
(5.406)
62.5
(2.461)
46.2
(1.819)
37.1
(1.461)
1,164.7
(45.854)
% humidity 75 74 76 76 76 82 82 81 78 75 74 73 76.8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.7 10.3 13.9 12.7 12.1 14.4 12.0 11.3 11.0 8.1 7.0 6.5 129.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 123.0 115.7 126.0 156.1 173.5 147.6 217.8 220.8 158.9 160.8 146.6 147.7 1,894.5
Source: China Meteorological Administration