Beijing Climate & Terrain

Beijing has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dwa), characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone.[41] Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn, like spring, sees little rain, but is crisp and short. The monthly daily average temperature in January is -3.7 °C (25.3 °F), while in July it is 26.2 °C (79.2 °F). Precipitation averages around 570 mm (22.4 in) annually, with the great majority of it falling in the summer months. Extremes have ranged from -27.4 to 42.6 °C (-17 to 109 °F).

Climate data for Beijing (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
5.0
(41.0)
11.6
(52.9)
20.3
(68.5)
26.0
(78.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.9
(87.6)
29.7
(85.5)
25.8
(78.4)
19.1
(66.4)
10.1
(50.2)
3.7
(38.7)
17.9
(64.2)
Average low °C (°F) -8.4
(16.9)
-5.6
(21.9)
0.4
(32.7)
7.9
(46.2)
13.6
(56.5)
18.8
(65.8)
22.0
(71.6)
20.8
(69.4)
14.8
(58.6)
7.9
(46.2)
0.0
(32.0)
-5.8
(21.6)
7.2
(45.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.7
(0.106)
4.9
(0.193)
8.3
(0.327)
21.2
(0.835)
34.2
(1.346)
78.1
(3.075)
185.2
(7.291)
159.7
(6.287)
45.5
(1.791)
21.8
(0.858)
7.4
(0.291)
2.8
(0.11)
571.8
(22.512)
%humidity 44 44 46 46 53 61 75 77 68 61 57 49 56.8
Avg. precipitation days (>= 0.1 mm) 1.8 2.3 3.3 4.3 5.8 9.7 13.6 12.0 7.6 5.0 3.5 1.7 70.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 194.1 194.7 231.8 251.9 283.4 261.4 212.4 220.9 232.1 222.1 185.3 180.7 2,670.8
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Xian Climate & Terrain

Xi'an has a temperate, semi-arid climate (Koppen BSk) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. Spring and autumn are somewhat brief and dry. Xi'an receives most of its annual precipitation from August to late October in the form of rain. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. Monthly mean temperatures range from around the freezing mark in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual average of 13.7 °C (56.7 °F). Extreme temperatures have ranged from -20.6 °C (-5 °F) to 42.9 °C (109 °F).

Climate data for Xi'an (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
8.3
(46.9)
13.9
(57.0)
21.0
(69.8)
26.1
(79.0)
31.2
(88.2)
32.1
(89.8)
30.8
(87.4)
25.3
(77.5)
19.5
(67.1)
12.2
(54.0)
6.4
(43.5)
19.3
(66.7)
Average low °C (°F) -3.8
(25.2)
-1.1
(30.0)
3.6
(38.5)
9.5
(49.1)
14.2
(57.6)
19.2
(66.6)
21.9
(71.4)
20.9
(69.6)
15.9
(60.6)
9.9
(49.8)
2.9
(37.2)
-2.5
(27.5)
9.2
(48.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 6.9
(0.272)
9.6
(0.378)
28.6
(1.126)
43.0
(1.693)
60.2
(2.37)
54.4
(2.142)
98.6
(3.882)
70.8
(2.787)
91.6
(3.606)
59.9
(2.358)
23.9
(0.941)
5.8
(0.228)
553.3
(21.783)
humidity 66 63 66 67 68 62 71 75 79 77 74 69 69.8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.6 4.4 6.9 8.4 8.9 9.0 10.0 9.1 10.9 9.7 6.0 3.4 90.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 100.8 103.2 120.8 147.9 171.4 185.3 191.9 195.4 127.0 111.1 98.4 92.8 1,646.0
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Urumqi Climate & Terrain

In Urumqi a semi-arid climate (Koppen climate classification BSk) prevails, with very large differences between summer and winter, hot summers, with a July daily average of 23.7 °C (74.7 °F), and very cold winters, with a January daily average of −12.6 °C (9.3 °F). The annual average temperature is 6.9 °C (44.4 °F). The city is semi-arid, with its summers slightly wetter than its winters, yet sunny weather is more likely in the warmer months, and relative humidity is the lowest during summer. Its annual precipitation is about 290 millimetres (11.4 in). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −41.5 °C (−43 °F) to 42.1 °C (108 °F).

Climate data for Ürümqi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −7.4
(18.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
2.7
(36.9)
16.1
(61.0)
23.1
(73.6)
27.6
(81.7)
30.1
(86.2)
29.0
(84.2)
23.1
(73.6)
13.2
(55.8)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
12.6
(54.7)
Average low °C (°F) −16.6
(2.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
4.8
(40.6)
11.2
(52.2)
16.1
(61.0)
18.2
(64.8)
16.7
(62.1)
11.2
(52.2)
3.1
(37.6)
−5.9
(21.4)
−12.9
(8.8)
2.2
(36.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10.4
(0.409)
10.0
(0.394)
18.5
(0.728)
32.3
(1.272)
38.9
(1.531)
36.2
(1.425)
30.4
(1.197)
23.3
(0.917)
26.2
(1.031)
26.3
(1.035)
19.1
(0.752)
14.6
(0.575)
286.3
(11.272)
% humidity 78 77 71 48 43 43 43 41 44 58 74 78 58.2
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.2 7.2 7.2 6.8 6.8 8.0 8.4 6.3 5.0 5.5 6.9 9.6 86.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.6 128.8 180.5 248.0 283.3 282.7 298.7 301.0 262.6 224.4 127.4 84.3 2,523.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Kashgar Climate & Terrain

Kashgar features a desert climate (Köppen BWk) with hot summers and cold winters, with large temperature differences between those two seasons: The average high in January and July is 0.3 °C (32.5 °F) and 32.1 °C (90 °F). Spring is long and arrives quickly, while fall is somewhat short. The mean annual temperature is 11.9 °C (53.4 °F). Kashgar is one of the driest cities on the planet, averaging only 64 millimetres (2.52 in) of precipitation per year. The city’s wettest month, July, only sees on average 9.1 millimetres (0.36 in) of rain. Because of the extremely arid conditions, snowfall is rare, despite the cold winters. Records have been as low as −24.4 °C (−12 °F) in January and up to 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) in July. The frost-free period averages 215 days.

Climate data for Kashgar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
5.1
(41.2)
13.5
(56.3)
22.2
(72.0)
26.4
(79.5)
30.2
(86.4)
32.1
(89.8)
30.7
(87.3)
26.5
(79.7)
19.8
(67.6)
10.6
(51.1)
1.9
(35.4)
18.3
(64.9)
Average low °C (°F) −10.2
(13.6)
−6.2
(20.8)
1.7
(35.1)
8.6
(47.5)
12.9
(55.2)
16.1
(61.0)
18.6
(65.5)
17.2
(63.0)
11.9
(53.4)
4.7
(40.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
−7.7
(18.1)
5.5
(41.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.1
(0.083)
5.7
(0.224)
6.7
(0.264)
5.2
(0.205)
8.5
(0.335)
7.7
(0.303)
9.1
(0.358)
7.9
(0.311)
5.3
(0.209)
2.5
(0.098)
1.6
(0.063)
1.7
(0.067)
64.0
(2.52)
% humidity 67 58 48 40 41 41 43 49 53 56 61 70 52.0
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.2 2.1 2.3 1.6 2.9 3.5 3.7 3.7 2.5 1.1 .6 1.7 27.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 154.9 160.1 184.5 213.7 255.6 304.3 312.2 287.5 259.4 239.9 196.2 158.0 2,726.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Turpan Climate & Terrain

Turpan is located about 150 km (93 mi) southeast of Ürümqi, Xinjiang's capital, in a mountain basin, on the northern side of the Turpan Depression, at an elevation of 30 m (98 ft) above sea level. Outside of Turpan is a small volcanic cone, the Turfan volcano, that is said to have erupted in 1120 as described in the Song Dynasty.

Turpan has a harsh, cold desert climate (Köppen BWk), with long and very hot summers, winters that are quite cold and moderately long, and brief spring and autumn in between. Annual precipitation is very low, amounting to only 15.7 millimetres (0.62 in). July is the hottest month, averaging 32.2 °C (90.0 °F), while January is the coldest, at −7.6 °C (18.3 °F), for an annual mean of 14.4 °C (57.9 °F).

Extremes have ranged from −28.9 °C (−20 °F) to 48.1 °C (119 °F).

However, the very heat and dryness of the summer, when combined with the area's ancient system of irrigation, allows the countryside around Turpan to produce great quantities of high-quality fruit.

Climate data for Turpan (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
6.0
(42.8)
16.3
(61.3)
26.5
(79.7)
33.3
(91.9)
37.9
(100.2)
39.6
(103.3)
38.0
(100.4)
31.9
(89.4)
21.8
(71.2)
9.5
(49.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
21.5
(70.7)
Average low °C (°F) −12.1
(10.2)
−6
(21)
3.2
(37.8)
12.4
(54.3)
18.7
(65.7)
23.2
(73.8)
25.0
(77.0)
22.8
(73.0)
16.3
(61.3)
7.1
(44.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
−9.6
(14.7)
8.2
(46.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1.1
(0.043)
.5
(0.02)
1.2
(0.047)
.5
(0.02)
.9
(0.035)
2.9
(0.114)
1.9
(0.075)
1.8
(0.071)
1.6
(0.063)
1.7
(0.067)
.6
(0.024)
1.0
(0.039)
15.7
(0.618)
humidity 60 45 31 26 28 31 33 37 42 51 54 61 41.6
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.5 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.9 2.3 2.0 1.9 1.2 0.7 0.3 1.1 13.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 159.7 188.6 239.5 256.8 299.6 301.2 311.7 305.9 278.8 250.6 184.7 135.1 2,912.2
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Dunhuang Climate & Terrain

Dunhuang, being surrounded by high mountains, has an arid, continental climate. The annual average temperature is 9.48 °C (49.1 °F), but the monthly daily mean temperature ranges from 24.6 °C (76.3 °F) in July down to −8.3 °C (17.1 °F) in January. The city is extremely hot in summer and cold in winter, and usually has sharp temperature differences between day and night. Precipitation occurs only in trace amounts and quickly evaporates.

Climate data for Dunhuang (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
4.9
(40.8)
12.7
(54.9)
21.2
(70.2)
27.0
(80.6)
30.9
(87.6)
32.7
(90.9)
31.7
(89.1)
26.8
(80.2)
18.8
(65.8)
8.4
(47.1)
0.6
(33.1)
17.9
(64.2)
Average low °C (°F) −14.6
(5.7)
−10.5
(13.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
4.1
(39.4)
9.6
(49.3)
13.9
(57.0)
16.4
(61.5)
14.6
(58.3)
8.5
(47.3)
0.6
(33.1)
−5.5
(22.1)
−12
(10.4)
1.8
(35.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0.8
(0.031)
0.8
(0.031)
2.1
(0.083)
2.4
(0.094)
2.4
(0.094)
8.0
(0.315)
15.2
(0.598)
6.3
(0.248)
1.5
(0.059)
0.8
(0.031)
1.3
(0.051)
0.8
(0.031)
42.4
(1.669)
% humidity 52 40 35 31 33 42 45 45 45 45 51 55 43.3
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.5 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.3 3.7 4.8 2.6 0.9 0.5 1.1 1.3 21.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 219.0 218.6 254.9 282.4 320.2 313.6 318.9 316.1 296.1 280.8 230.4 206.8 3,257.8
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Guilin Climate & Terrain

Guilin has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, with mild winters and long, hot, and humid summers. The monsoon is long, lasting from March to August, and a pronounced dry season occurs in fall and winter; the total annual rainfall is 1,920 millimetres (76 in). Mean temperatures range from 8.5 °C (47.3 °F) in January to 28.7 °C (83.7 °F) in July. Snowfall is rare but possible in winter.

Climate data for Guilin (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
12.7
(54.9)
16.5
(61.7)
22.7
(72.9)
27.1
(80.8)
30.4
(86.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.8
(91.0)
30.3
(86.5)
25.6
(78.1)
20.2
(68.4)
15.2
(59.4)
23.1
(73.6)
Average low °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
7.0
(44.6)
10.4
(50.7)
15.9
(60.6)
20.1
(68.2)
23.4
(74.1)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
21.9
(71.4)
17.3
(63.1)
12.1
(53.8)
7.3
(45.1)
15.8
(60.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 63.4
(2.496)
96.7
(3.807)
136.7
(5.382)
247.4
(9.74)
351.7
(13.846)
346.9
(13.657)
231.3
(9.106)
173.3
(6.823)
81.8
(3.22)
65.7
(2.587)
63.6
(2.504)
42.8
(1.685)
1,901.3
(74.854)
% humidity 74 76 80 81 81 82 79 78 73 71 67 67 75.8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15.1 15.5 18.6 20.2 19.0 17.5 16.1 14.8 8.2 9.7 8.7 9.1 172.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.9 50.0 51.6 72.6 109.5 131.1 199.4 204.1 193.4 157.1 134.4 117.2 1,487.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Chengdu Climate & Terrain

Chengdu has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, and is largely mild and humid. It has four distinct seasons, blessed with abundant rainfall, and relieved from both sweltering summers and freezing winters. Its favorable climate contributes to the development of agriculture and animal husbandry, making Chengdu a comfortable place for sustained human habitat.

The Qin Mountains to the far north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter; because of this, the short winter is milder than in the Lower Yangtze. January averages 5.6 °C (42.1 °F) Snow is rare but there are a few periods of frost each winter. The summer is hot and humid, but not to the extent of the "Three Furnaces" cities of Wuhan, Nanjing, and Chongqing, all which lie in the Yangtze basin. July and August average around 25 °C (77 °F), with afternoon highs sometimes reaching 33 °C (91 °F); sustained heat in the likes of some cities in Southeastern China is rare. Rainfall is common year-round but is the greatest in July and August, with very little of it in the cooler months. Chengdu also has one of the lowest sunshine totals in China (less sunshine annually than London), and most days are cloudy and overcast even if without rain. This is especially so in the winter months, when it is typically interminably grey and dreary, compounding the poor air quality. Spring (March-April) tends to be sunnier and warmer than autumn (October–November). Extremes have ranged from −5.9 °C (21 °F) to 40.0 °C (104.0 °F).

Climate data for Chengdu (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
11.2
(52.2)
15.9
(60.6)
21.7
(71.1)
26.0
(78.8)
28.0
(82.4)
29.5
(85.1)
29.7
(85.5)
25.2
(77.4)
20.6
(69.1)
15.8
(60.4)
10.7
(51.3)
20.3
(68.5)
Average low °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
4.7
(40.5)
8.2
(46.8)
12.9
(55.2)
17.2
(63.0)
20.5
(68.9)
22.0
(71.6)
21.7
(71.1)
18.6
(65.5)
14.6
(58.3)
9.5
(49.1)
4.5
(40.1)
13.1
(55.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 7.9
(0.311)
12.1
(0.476)
20.0
(0.787)
44.2
(1.74)
78.5
(3.091)
106.8
(4.205)
224.5
(8.839)
201.1
(7.917)
118.8
(4.677)
35.2
(1.386)
15.9
(0.626)
5.2
(0.205)
870.2
(34.26)
% humidity 83 81 79 78 76 81 86 85 85 85 83 84 82.2
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.0 8.5 10.9 13.0 14.7 15.2 17.6 15.8 15.6 13.1 7.7 5.2 144.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 53.3 51.4 83.1 113.9 121.7 117.2 131.9 155.0 77.6 59.4 57.2 51.6 1,073.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Lhasa Climate & Terrain

Due to its very high elevation, Lhasa has a cool semi-arid climate with frosty winters and mild summers, yet the valley location protects the city from intense cold or heat and strong winds. The city enjoys nearly 3,000 hours of sunlight annually and is thus sometimes called the "sunlit city" by Tibetans. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of −1.6 °C (29.1 °F) and the warmest month is June with a daily average of 16.0 °C (60.8 °F), though nights have generally been warmer in July. The annual mean temperature is 7.98 °C (46.4 °F), with extreme temperatures ranging from −16.5 to 30.4 °C (2 to 87 °F). Lhasa has an annual precipitation of 426 millimetres (16.8 in) with rain falling mainly in July, August and September. The driest month is January at 0.8 millimetres (0.03 in) and the wettest month is August, at 120.6 millimetres (4.75 in). The rainy season is widely regarded the "best" of the year as rains come mostly at night and Lhasa is still sunny during the daytime.

Climate data for Lhasa (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
9.3
(48.7)
12.7
(54.9)
15.9
(60.6)
19.9
(67.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.6
(72.7)
21.4
(70.5)
19.9
(67.8)
17.0
(62.6)
12.1
(53.8)
8.0
(46.4)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) −9
(15.8)
−5.8
(21.6)
−2.1
(28.2)
1.5
(34.7)
5.6
(42.1)
9.8
(49.6)
10.4
(50.7)
9.7
(49.5)
7.7
(45.9)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.2
(24.4)
−8.2
(17.2)
1.5
(34.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) .8
(0.031)
1.2
(0.047)
2.9
(0.114)
6.1
(0.24)
27.7
(1.091)
71.2
(2.803)
116.6
(4.591)
120.6
(4.748)
68.3
(2.689)
8.8
(0.346)
1.3
(0.051)
1.0
(0.039)
426.5
(16.791)
% humidity 28 26 27 37 44 51 62 66 63 49 38 34 43.8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) .7 1.0 1.6 4.3 9.9 14.3 19.1 20.0 15.4 4.5 .7 .6 92.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 250.9 226.7 246.1 248.9 276.6 257.3 227.4 219.6 229.0 281.7 267.4 258.6 2,990.2
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Shanghai Climate & Terrain

Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) and experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, and cold northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing, although most years there are only one or two days of snowfall. Summers are hot and humid, with an average of 8.7 days exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) annually; occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. The city is also susceptible to typhoons in summer and the beginning of autumn, none of which in recent years has caused considerable damage. The most pleasant seasons are Spring, although changeable and often rainy, and Autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. The city averages 4.2 °C (39.6 °F) in January and 27.9 °C (82.2 °F) in July, for an annual mean of 16.1 °C (61.0 °F). Shanghai experiences on average 1,878 hours of sunshine per year, with the hottest temperature ever recorded at 40.2 °C (104 °F), and the lowest at -12.1 °C (10 °F).

Climate data for Shanghai (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
9.2
(48.6)
12.8
(55.0)
19.1
(66.4)
24.1
(75.4)
27.6
(81.7)
31.8
(89.2)
31.3
(88.3)
27.2
(81.0)
22.6
(72.7)
17.0
(62.6)
11.1
(52.0)
20.2
(68.4)
Average low °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
2.2
(36.0)
5.6
(42.1)
10.9
(51.6)
16.1
(61.0)
20.8
(69.4)
25.0
(77.0)
24.9
(76.8)
20.6
(69.1)
15.1
(59.2)
9.0
(48.2)
3.0
(37.4)
12.9
(55.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 50.6
(1.992)
56.8
(2.236)
98.8
(3.89)
89.3
(3.516)
102.3
(4.028)
169.6
(6.677)
156.3
(6.154)
157.9
(6.217)
137.3
(5.406)
62.5
(2.461)
46.2
(1.819)
37.1
(1.461)
1,164.7
(45.854)
% humidity 75 74 76 76 76 82 82 81 78 75 74 73 76.8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.7 10.3 13.9 12.7 12.1 14.4 12.0 11.3 11.0 8.1 7.0 6.5 129.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 123.0 115.7 126.0 156.1 173.5 147.6 217.8 220.8 158.9 160.8 146.6 147.7 1,894.5
Source: China Meteorological Administration